What is Pyknomax Forte® Hyperpigmentation Tablet?
L-Cysteine, Glycine & Glutamic Acid precursor for intrinsic production of the tripeptide Glutathione. Antioxidants are one of the body’s most powerful tools for preventing cell damage and keeping you healthy. Some antioxidants, like glutathione, are produced within the body. Although it has many uses, glutathione also has amazing anti-aging properties to help you maintain a brighter, more even complexion.
Pine Bark Extract is a potent anti-oxidant, it has anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity. It also gives sun protection and has anti-photo-aging properties.
Hyperpigmentation is a common complaint of dermatology patients. It may be viewed as cosmetically undesirable and has the potential to produce significant psychosocial distress. There are two important types of melanin: pheomelanin (yellow-red pigment) and eumelanin (black-brown pigment). The type and concentration of melanin pigment determine the coloration of the skin.
Both types of melanin are made by melanocytes. Each melanocyte is surrounded by about 40 keratinocytes. Melanin is produced and stored inside melanocytes within specialized organelles known as melanosomes. These melanosomes are then transported to overlaying keratinocytes, which allows for the distribution of pigmentation. The principal role of melanin is to protect the skin from ultraviolet (UV) damage by absorbing UV sunlight and removing reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Melanin itself is formed through a complex series of chemical reactions involving the amino acid tyrosine in the presence of the copper-containing enzyme tyrosinase. The enzyme tyrosinase is necessary for the conversion of tyrosine to both eumelanin and pheomelanin. Interestingly, tyrosinase exists widely in plants as well and is responsible for enzymatic browning. Hyperpigmentation occurs when the body produces an excess of eumelanin, pheomelanin, or both.
As might be expected, an increase in melanin pigmentation in the skin is most frequently caused by chronic sun exposure. However, it is also well known to occur in a variety of systemic conditions including Addison’s disease (adrenal gland insufficiency), Wilson’s disease (excess copper), hormonally-mediated factors (e.g. pregnancy), hemochromatosis (excess iron), thyroid disease, diabetes, and malnutrition, as well as exposure to certain medications. The existence of systemic causes of skin hyperpigmentation suggests that some types of hyperpigmentation may improve with systemic treatments.
A number of orally administered natural extracts, vitamins, and supplements, as well as foods, are frequently promoted for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. While most scientific studies have examined the skin-lightening effects of topical agents, a growing number have begun to review the benefits of some of these oral therapies for decreasing tyrosinase production and efficacy, inflammatory mediators of hyperpigmentation, and keratinocyte uptake of melanin. We examine the evidence supporting the use of oral supplements such as glutathione, amino acids, vitamins, flavonoids, carotenoids, and metformin in treating idiopathic, actinic, and some types of metabolically induced skin hyperpigmentation.
Glutathione. The most commonly used systemic skin lightening agent is glutathione. It is an important tri-peptide antioxidant synthesized in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria from the amino acids glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. Fruits and vegetables have moderate to high amounts of glutathione and freshly prepared meats are relatively rich as well. Glutathione is thought to work through several mechanisms to inhibit melanin synthesis. These include interrupting the activity of tyrosinase by binding and chelating copper, as well as quenching the free radicals and peroxides that contribute to tyrosinase activation.
In a single randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 60 participants, orally administered glutathione at 500mg daily for 4 weeks decreased melanin and resulted in the lightening of skin color measured on the face and forearm. Oral glutathione is in the “generally regarded as safe” category of the Food and Drug Administration and is usually marketed as a food or dietary supplement.